Believing Bodily

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I have begun to read a book, prompted by my Fulcrum friend Ephraim Radner's blog review. This book is helping me to explore further my pet worst heresy: Gnostic dualism between body and soul.

I have only read the beginning of this book, I am after 'time,' which is of late hard to find and seems to be hiding from me.

The words of the book have so far struck me with their liveliness.

Much of the book is autobiographical and there are touch points (we are to actually engage with our bodies, prayerfully), there is also a lectio divina approach to the scriptures.

At times there is deep theological reflection to complement what is otherwise a lightness of touch. The gnostic tendencies that we all seem to have are exposed and scrutinised but not without one feeling as though one is always being treated gently for falling into such confusion.

"What we see in the creeds, what we read in these early affirmations of our church ancestors, is an insistence on the particularity of Jesus (he lived at a particular point in history, he was fully God and fully human), the unity of the Trinity and—something that seems to have gotten tucked away in the folds of history—an unflinching belief in the physical resurrection of our bodies when the kingdom of God comes in fullness."

The author explores "Gnosticism [which] purports that matter—the stuff our universe is made of—is inherently flawed and, to more ascetic factions, evil... the heritage of believing our bodies to be painfully incapable of certain types of redemption cripples us to the possibilities God has for the whole of us, bodies included."

Last Thursday we celebrated Ascension. I had cause to think again on flesh and this time, Christ's and how his was a bodily ascension into heaven. I am interested in the ramifications that this has for us as Christians and as I preached, suggested members of the congregation might continue such a theological exploration with me regarding how the ascension impacts discipleship and our feelings about ourselves and one another. Here are my first thoughts: 

The Lord Jesus ascended into heaven. There is a sense of finality lent to his time amongst us in a particular way – God is doing another new thing, it would seem. We actually know very little of what heaven, the place to which Jesus ascended, is like, the book of Revelation gives us some idea. That he returns there to dwell with the Father is however, very important because in doing so it is not as if his being human ends, it is instead that he is glorified. 

Wrapped up with this, there is a being glorified that is ours: one of the consequences of the Incarnation is that this Jesus having become human, has now taken our humanity with him into heaven.

This is attested in Article IV of the Thirty-Nine Articles, Of the Resurrection of Christ this article is called and states—

Christ did truly rise again from death, and took again his body, with flesh, bones and all things appertaining to the perfection of Man’s nature; wherewith he ascended into Heaven, and there sitteth, until he return to judge all Men at the last day.

That he ascended with bones, flesh and all things surely has astounding ramifications for us as Christians. He is 'able to sympathise with us in our weaknesses ... has been tempted in every way, just as we are – yet was without sin. (Heb. 4).' The humanity of Christ that identifies with our humanity never ends, Jesus continues to be the human Jesus as well as the divine Christ.

Paul Fiddes – a contemporary theologian, writes about our participation in God – if you think on Reblev's icon, there really is an empty space at the table for you and I. It does us good spiritually to really understand that in Christ's ascension in his full humanity, there is a taking of each of us, in all our humanity, with him: you dwell also in the heavenly places by virtue of your identity as those who are 'in Christ'. You are in him and he is in you in that mutual indwelling that is described so perfectly by John's verb dwell or abide, those verbs that dominate his gospel. Therefore in Holy Communion (the Eucharist) might be less about Christ's coming down to dwell in bread and wine and more about our being raised up to dwell with him in the heavenly places. Of course the Eucharist is a great mystery but note echoes of the ascension heard in such words as 'Lift up your hearts' and 'we lift them to the Lord.'

Will all of this not also impact how we bear ourselves as his disciples in the world? 'Since then you have been raised with Christ, set your hearts on things above, where Christ is seated at the right hand of God. Set your minds on things above, not on earthly things. For you died, and your life is now hidden with Christ in God (Col. 3:1-3).'

This is a profound statement of our Christian identity. A little like the Ludo boardgame, one counter is already home with Christ (your identity already subsumed in his in the heavenly realms where he has taken you, remember our God is outside time and space). The other counter, the earthly you, is trying to catch up with your heavenly perfected self, made perfect already by the work of Christ on the cross – yours is a slate that has been wiped clean, remember.

This is attested to over and over again by the scriptures – this truth – that our minds can conceive through the simple analogy of the Ludo game: ‘God raised us up with Christ and seated us with him in the heavenly realms in Christ Jesus,’ we hear in Paul's letter to the Ephesians (2:6).

And so if Christ is in Heaven – what hope for the earthly us here, even if there is a dimension to us that is already secure because 'In Christ' in heaven.

Well, if Christ is only in heaven and has left us here on earth alone then there is a great deal to be concerned about – we are helped hugely by understanding that in Heaven his job is to intercede for us who dwell here still on earth and as the prayer book of 1662 repeats every Sunday – 'If any man sin, we have an advocate in heaven, Jesus Christ the Righteous '– thank God for that... but even so the thought of being alone is not easy. Thank God again then that the particularised Christ who once dwelt in physical time and space, Palestine 2000 years ago, and could not be everywhere then, who is now, it would seem in Heaven, can, thank God, - be present everywhere, by his Spirit. 

We move now to Pentecost – ten days lie before us for us to work all this out and if this stuff might still need a good deal of working out come and have tea with me at the vicarage where we can finish the conversation – but we have ten days now to prepare ourselves for that great celebration that is both the birthday of the church and the coming of the Spirit – it is him for whom we now wait. Of course, by virtue of the first Pentecost he is already present with us but there is always upon us a hope to recognise this and appropriate this afresh. 

May we re-appropriate the Spirit, come to know that it is by Him that Christ is now present on earth. This should have profound consequences for his church – let the journey to Pentecost advance. 

I guess in saying what I said above, I then return to Spirit, Holy Spirit, but made manifest in flesh again, our flesh as we become the body and breath of Christ here on earth and so the body/spirit dualisms and convergencies continue to play themselves out. I am not done thinking through all the ramifications of this - only that I am keen to practise and preach a 'believing bodily' for my own sake and the sake of others. 

To be continued....


WORD and Oliver Davies

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For God to speak is for God freely to “come into existence...”

Oliver  Davies, in THE SIGN REDEEMED: A STUDY IN CHRISTIAN FUNDAMENTAL SEMIOTICS (Modern Theology 19:2 April 20030) explains the overlap between the disciplines of theology & Semiotics.

I am often finding myself at pains to communicate the power of words and when I changed from English teacher to ordinand and then to vicar, the potency of language changed for me as I began to see that the gap between sign and signifier had been closed in the revelation of God. This has always fascinated me and yet finding the words to describe this when one's undergraduate English student days are long gone, has been frustrating. That is until some friends of mine began to introduce me to the mind of one Oliver Davies and I now begin to read his words in my own attempt to find words again.

Oliver Davies describes the potency of the language spoken at the Eucharist: The world is therefore made different by these words. What we find here then is a kind of speaking which is akin to the originary speech of the opening verses of Genesis. In Genesis 1–2:4.

Oliver Davies speaks of the closure of the gap between sign and signifier in the very Word or Logos being Christ. This is revelation. There is something rather Barthian about Davies' approach to revelation that captures me. He describes how this gap is closed in a particular way with Scripture: The Hebrew homonym dabar—dabar, meaning both “thing” and “word”, suggests that the distinction between objects in the world and linguistic signs may be less comprehensive than may appear.

Jesus also is the Word or Logos, the one through whom all things were made... the Father speaks in the Son, Jesus speaks as the Father. The gap, even though it is only the fraction of space between speaking mouths, is now closed. But that movement of intensified intimacy also releases a further stage in the creative revelation of God to and in the world, for we now learn in the Baptism of Jesus that God is not one but three and one...what is revealed in the Incarnation of the Word is itself a mode of speaking: a polyphonic, inner-Trinitarian discourse of total transparency, communication
and surrender.

Davies' proposal that we return to the word, to scripture through the symbol that is the Eucharist, the performative act, that seems at first to advance beyond language and then to return to it is intriguing. He talks of the absence and the presence, an oscillation between bread and wine and body and blood which plays out the cycle from death to resurrection. He also allows for that theology of a change in the participants with which I have always resonated as someone more charismatic by spirituality.

The Eucharist then marks the point at which the community of those who came after are taken up into the dynamic of Jesus’ own “act of reading”, and are made one with him within a scriptural world.

"Real presence" then might be understood as this complete closure of gap between sign and signifier, where the performative nature of the speech act under the power of the Spirit causes that fusion of the material substance and the divine reality so that indeed there is something efficacious about the sacrament that is the Eucharist. Davies explains how for Aquinas the Eucharistic signs becomes so transfigured by signification that the object of their signifying, that is the body and blood, take on presence.

Struck by the different feel of the various prayers, as I celebrate the Eucharist, some that ask the Spirit to transform the bread and wine and some to transform the people participating in the Eucharist, I am struck by Davies' insistence that the worshipping community [are] overtaken by the divine presence which is its ground, as textual sign by authorial voice. This overshadowing is simultaneously the sanctification of the ... interpreting community, who are as integrally part of the
Eucharistic “event” as are either the bread and wine or Body and Blood.

Oliver Davies' Theology of the Eucharist might influence praxis to the extent that it helps the worshipping community focus on its mission.

A Eucharistic way of reasoning will... be ...structured as dialogue, listening and debate. The very disclosure of the Godhead is triadic ...the community ....constituted by it are called to ... reciprocity and response... informed by voices from within the Church and the traditions of the Church, but ... also.... attentive to voices from outside the visible borders of the Church which communicate new and developing understandings of the world and of the place of humanity within it.

Thank you Oliver Davies. 


Edited Guest post: Resurrection as an intensification of the incarnation

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Canon Dr Christina Baxter CBE
Former Principal of St John’s Theological College, Nottingham
Former Chair of the Church of England’s General Synod’s House of Laity. 
She has been a Reader and lay canon of Southwell.

Canon Dr Christina Baxter on the resurrection:

Analogous to the feeling perhaps experienced by scientists on making new discoveries with Jesus and his resurrection there is that collision of expectation with reality. We rework what we thought about life before. The Resurrection has the disciples and the followers of the way reshape their understanding. Tom Wright explains how individual resurrection came as a surprise against the Jewish expectation of resurrection as a corporate event.

The church's meditation on this event is ongoing.

Mary came to the tomb and we witness her grief, for as yet, they did not understand the scripture that he must rise from the dead. Christ is transformed but the risen Christ helps us understand our transformation. There was this cruel crucifixion and how was sense to be made of that? This end is no end but a prelude to a beginning. Everything needs realigning and reassessing in the light of this event to the extent that they and we struggle to find words. What has God been doing amongst us?

There is the transformation of Mary and the disciples into bold and proclaiming and confident people. It speaks into the transformation of relationships too. It is the women who tell this story. God entrusts those whom men would not have trusted. These women become the apostles to the apostles. They have an understanding of who Jesus Christ is. He is transformed.

The resurrection is an intensification of the incarnation. Jesus Christ affirms his humanity and the good order in the incarnation. Up to the crucifixion we might have decided that the powers of evil had overcome, that the incarnation had come undone but the resurrection tells us that this is not the case. Crucifixion can not end the incarnation when the incarnate one is transformed and is still incarnate and is eternally incarnate. From this vantage point we look back from the resurrection to creation and we see that creation is indeed God's good work. God affirms his creation. He has made it capable of receiving himself. Resurrection underlines and intensifies creation, so how do we relate to it before general resurrection?

The earth will be transformed as Christ is transformed and so all of this has ramifications. At the crucifixion we understand God as trinity but is it not more, that we need resurrection to understand the trinity?

This is a continuing life, life in the risen and the crucified one. We hold on to the unity of God and so the cross and the resurrection force us to impact every part of our theology.

Resurrection has us approach ecology differently too- this world is committed to resurrection and so we need to rediscover our role as stewards.

This continues to be a challenge and a place for repentance.

But there is this possibility of our own transformation NOW. This is why we believe in the possibility of it for people - the risen Christ performs acts of transformation in front of our eyes. It is right to have a passion for this idea that God is able to change us.

We are to take people as they are because God will transform them. We are not to be in a particular place first because God will equip and we believe that he can change us as we go along.

During that walk to Emmaus in Luke 24, there is that expressed hope that he was the one to redeem Israel. We read this story as the beginning of a meditation about the transformation of the disciples' beliefs. Beliefs are being transformed and their whole understanding of the breaking of bread changes - there are new things to be told now. They were to preach the kingdom and healing but now they preach that he is risen according to the scriptures and we are to discover what all of this means - repentance and forgiveness is located in the resurrection - then there will be the teaching of the Holy Spirit who flows out of the resurrection.

Jesus can appear and disappear and eat. There is a consequent complete 180 degree turn for the disciples on the road to Emmaus, they were going one way and now they are going in another direction. If we turn then to the book of Ephesians, resurrection is the expression there – the hope, the riches immeasurable, the greatness, seated in the heavenly places. All things under his feet. We understand the risen one in the light of all that has come before and the foreground of this passage is that in the power of God Christ comes back from the dead and then takes his seat in the heavenly realms and it is this power that is alive in us when we believe.

For us as clergy, where is all the particular significance in this? When we are in the middle of extraordinary pressures, addressing issues and enabling others to access their faith against endless demands, perhaps sometimes we feel we can not do this task, so we pray in the ordination service for the Holy Spirit: the power we need is the power of God to go on the next day and the next day. We need it more as time goes on. God offers the same power as that which raised Christ from the dead, this power is good and life giving, it is generous and it is forgiving. His power makes all things possible. God's power has made possible what has occurred. Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith. We are given the power to comprehend things which surpass knowledge.

Resurrection makes it possible for Christ to be in us and transform our understanding of all that has come before. Paul in 1 Cor 15 is a case study in transformation. By the grace of God I am what I am - transformation of our understanding, our selves, our work, our relationships with other people whom we would not have chosen but who are our brothers and our sisters through baptism, in all of this, there is this promise of transformation, of glory into glory - are we cooperating with this?

The transformation of the breaking of bread - it is not a macabre re-enactment or a sorrowful event when the only thing that makes it a celebration is the resurrection - this is how Christ meets us. We constantly have Easter before our eyes. We need to pause before the God so cruelly executed, who comes back to us to give us life. He is the type for our own resurrection. We have a glimpse of what it will be like. It will be grace and it will be gift. He has blazed the trail by going before - as in Adam all die, each will be made alive, Christ is the firstfruits. Resurrection is after the pattern of Christ and this is the power of God which can bring us into resurrection. He has begotten us again in lively hope.

We hold on in the face of the intractable obstacles. This is how we live under persecution where there are moments of extremity and martyrdom because the resurrection teaches us to hope in a future that is God's, that is his.

Donald Capp talks about how we revise the past and talk about a new future. He tells a story of a man in a village whose horse runs away. His neighbours lament for him. He says “We'll see” and the horse returns and brings two more horses. Other tragic events unfold in this man's life but when asked for a response about conclusion and meaning, he is only prepared with his maybes, always open to the possibility of some good that is hidden coming to light. Each time the events that others vicariously lament turns out for the best, even if the best is delayed. We do not understand the reasons for events turning out the way they do until the end because we see through a glass darkly. As we do this we hold on to a vision of the future, of what God will do in the future because we are a part of a longer narrative and in doing this we revise the past and then we see past events in the light of what happens. Pastoral practice or spiritual direction is something like standing near the tomb to see what God will do - or waiting at the tomb of Lazarus to see what Christ will do - we can hold out the hope that God will work here too just as he did in the resurrection - a God who raises Christ from the dead can accomplish anything.

The power of God at work in us is the power of the Holy Spirit. Taking up our cross and being willing is the way that we are made ready to receive the Holy Spirit. The Spirit comes when we are willing to let go of selfishness and by this can walk the way of the cross for the whole of our lives. The resurrection is not about triumphalism. There is triumph but not triumphalism. The power to be like Jesus Christ is power to suffer, the power to have compassion.

The resurrection power of the Holy Spirit empowers us to engage the powers and take the message out. As we have received Christ so we live in Christ as Paul says in Colossians and how we are to live is in the light of what has happened – our life is hidden with God. H doesn't talk about the future-heaven but how it is to be lived out in this life - your life is with Christ in God so that we clothe each moment in peace and love.

The question we are called to ask ourselves has everything to do with how we participate in God's trinitarian life and think about the cosmic Christ and the responsibility we have so that we have the possibility to believe that the ordinary and the routine things that we do are worthwhile because of the resurrection and the victory through Jesus Christ.

My beloved be steadfast, your labour is not in vain.

Christina responded to questions from the floor. When someone proposed a metaphorical reading of the resurrection she said that it is an event and can only function as a motif for understanding life because it is a real event first.

Christina also explained how she makes no apology for being orthodox, that this is a conviction that enables her to train people for ministry. She is not adverse to thinking through theology for the common time but not at the cost of abandoning those things that the Fathers found to be true. The scriptures are written because of the resurrection. If we had only had the cross then Jesus' sayings might have been thought worthy to write down and live out. It is all about the Resurrection. It is built on the cross but it transforms us, this resurrection, from perplexity and fear and a running away. It is the light of the resurrection that enables them to see the glory that was the three hours of agony!


If the Lord doesn't build this house? Give me good bricks. Hold onto that baby!

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The Revd Dr Alister McGrath, Professor at Oxford University, and an Associate Priest, offers a reflection this weekend on the proposed changes to theological training and formation for ministry. 

I chaired the Fulcrum Pivot^Point Thursday just gone (April 16th 2015), (recording available soon here) looking into this with Presbyter Revd Dr Ian Paul and Bishop Rt Revd Pete Broadbent. 

I find myself somehow stuck. 

I am impressed by visions for simplification, a necessary pragmatism, a being able to see the wood for the trees. 

I have to simply trust that this is what simplification, in terms of theological training for clergy, is all about. It is a right clearing of the pathway so that eyes can focus on the death and resurrection of Christ and all the implications that brings.  

I have to trust that we will not be throwing any babies out with the water that might seem to be filling the sinking ship.  

I also need to bring wisdom, holding dear the academic and spiritual training that I was given as a full time, residential student in those formative years, that were my own, towards becoming a Parish Priest at St John's College, Nottt'm. 

I sat under Presbyter Revd Dr Ian Paul with his high regard for this pathway and so I was rightly able to take a more academic approach. I did this consciously because I was also told that curacy would train me for pragmatics. 

I was told that the first 18 months of incumbency instil in you further everything that you need to do and be, to fulfil the tasks ahead. It is in incumbency that one grapples with Church Representation Rules, The Churchwardens Measure, Ecclesiastical Law, how to run Annual Parochial Church meetings, how to recruit paid and voluntary people under Diocesan Safer Recruitment processes etc. 

I did not cover these aspects as part of my initial residential training for ministry. At St John's, I learnt about prayer, liturgy, Anglican Communion history and exegetical and hermeneutical approaches to the scriptures. I learnt about preaching and spiritual discipline, I looked at some Greek and Hebrew. I took a module on the Patristic Fathers, learnt how the church over time has articulated the events that are the saving and reconciling acts of Jesus Christ: Atonement theology and the liberation theology born of his resurrection and more. 

I was theologically informed, I was sometimes painfully discipled. I was nurtured, my character was formed and chipped away at. It was formation, I learnt to become rightly accountable. I learnt about prophetic edge. I made mistakes, I picked myself back up again, as we all continue to do but I gained a love for the scriptures and came to know them as my life-blood, I became rightly reliant on God. 

I am now an incumbent under the lead of Rt Revd Pete Broadbent, he is my Bishop. I am sure that none of this is just random coincidence. 

I want to learn to combine the theological rigour, which I believe the diocese to which I am new, is also committed, with the simplification process that Pete is championing. I have to believe that each complements and informs the other. Together they provide a very hope-filled and appropriate pathway forward through the journey that is Parish ministry with all its knowns and unknowns. 

The Revd Dr Alister McGrath writes about how the Church of England needs a "significant increase in the number and quality of ministerial leaders" to meet this challenging situation. We have to believe that quality and number can be created. 

With individual dioceses being given greater autonomy over the training pathways for their ordinands, we have to pray that dioceses secure gifted theological educators. We have to hope that any investment into those who are 'gifted' both the educators and the educated, really does recognise 'gift' from God and worldly talent 'pool'. I don't want to force a split here but it was interesting to begin to explore this with Presbyter Revd Dr Ian on Thursday with his 'leaders are born not made.' How much will the church be able to retain that emphasis, clearly there in the scriptures, that this seems to be the case. The church has to hold tight to its development of 'character' (together with its approach to the accumulation of technique and approach which can be taught and nurtured.) The great "nurture or nature" debate, that is at the heart of any analysis into leadership, can not be dispensed with.

The Revd Dr Alister McGrath is right to speak prophetically with his warnings that we are to guard against a purely 'corporate, management-driven institutional approach to ministerial training.'

I want to know where we really are going to advocate an 'explicitly theological engagement with ministry' because indeed this is not something 'peripheral' or luxurious. I remember saying to a former colleague 'By Jove, if God isn't in it, I ain't doing it' because you know what? It's darn hard at times and sometimes you are only able to keep going because of God's accompanying presence and equipping. There is no leadership course on this planet that can guarantee me God himself. 

The Revd Dr Alister McGrath puts it like this: 

"To be asked to minister without an informing vision of God (which is what theology is really all about), however, is like being told to make bricks without straw.  

Give me straw!

Indeed I need to be energised 'through engagement with the realities of the Christian gospel.' In fact, more than that, this is my life-blood for the task ahead.

I wouldn't go as far as Alister McGrath with conclusions that 'the promotion of the well-being of an institution, and compliance with its culture seem to take priority over the gospel itself.' I am far more hope-filled than that and from what I have seen of the church's structures to this point in my ministry, I am convinced that this is not going to happen: there is being modelled to me that vital engagement with the gospel that is surely our mission here on earth.  

Alister McGrath insists, rightly, that, as ministers we need to 'have a personal knowledge of the Christian gospel, to have assimilated its themes, and to appreciate how this informs and stimulates pastoral care, mission, preaching, and spirituality.'

Alister McGrath believes in the local congregation and that their desire, like his, involves their wanting 'help in reading the Bible and understanding its message. They want help in deepening their faith and their life of prayer (they might not always use the word "spirituality", but that's what they're getting at)... perhaps the people I talk to are not representative. But this gathering of the felt needs of congregations needs to be done, and done properly, before we take new directions in ministerial education which could cause us to lose something vital and irreplaceable.'

I look forward to working with the Church on approaches to how we best gather and assimilate and analyse the desires of our congregations.

I look forward to working with the Church in my own formation of the priest and will share with the Church my desires for what that might look like. I am sometimes also one of those who wonders .... Alistair McGrath captures my internal dialogue with his: 'To its critics, the study of theology distracts from real life.' However, I also know that in my own strength and without a thought-through, prayerful, biblically-grounded approach to the tasks ahead, my own personal boat will simply row around in circles, as I had a habit of doing accidentally in the River Wear, as I holidayed in Durham over Easter. 

I will watch the training pathways of my future colleagues with interest and continue to pray that my own future and continual development is nourished through that combination of simplification and theological equipping. 

Ever hopeful!


Is the ship about to sink?

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Are we drinking in the last chance saloon? 

Is the ship about to sink?

Growing God's Kingdom through Reform & Renewal in the Church of England.
Thursday 16th April 2015, 6pm for 6.30 start, finishing at 8pm.

Tickets are free; there will be refreshments and a retiring collection to cover expenses.

With Rt Revd Pete Broadbent, Bishop of Willesden and Revd Dr Ian Paul, blogger, commentator and theologian, moderated by Revd Rachel Marszalek, General Sectretary of Fulcrum.

There will be time for open discussion.

Fulcrum's new series of events- Pivot^Points- aims to get the conversation going about the role of the Church today. This series will look at a wide variety of topics, but will always revolve around that core theme.

The fourth event in our series sees us tackle one of the most vital current issues facing the Church of England and the wider Church... Does the Church have a future, and will the proposed reforms help or hinder growth?

Earlier this year, a series of reports were published by the Church of England. In this session, we'll attempt to explain what they mean, assess their strengths and weaknesses and answer the fundamental question: Will the reform and renewal programme play a part in reversing the decline in numbers in our congregations?

Rt Revd Pete Broadbent is Bishop of Willesden. Since being ordained, he's held posts in Durham and London Dioceses and was the Archdeacon of Northolt before taking up his current role in 2001. He is the Chair of the Spring Harvest Leadership Team and was a longstanding member of the General Synod. He chaired the Church of England's task group on simplification which has recommended wholesale changes to the way the church is administered.

Revd Dr Ian Paul is one of the leading Christian bloggers in the UK. He is Associate Minister of St Nic's, Nottingham, Director of Publishing at Grove Books and an honourary lecturer at the University of Nottingham. He was Dean of Studies at St John's College, Nottingham and has been a member of General Synod and the Church of England Evangelical Council. Ian has written about the Church of England's reform process - especially as it affects ministerial training.


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A little background reading on the two theological integrities in the Church of England regarding women in ministry.